مصدر الموضوع الاصلي: منهجي في ماده reading
Literature: Literature in a broad sense:
anything written, including writings
that have a factual or informative nature
Literature in a specific sense: imaginative writings
communicating life experiences, thoughts
and feelings about life, such as stories, poems and plays
Why do we read Literature?
a) To widen our experiences with life.
b) To deepen our understanding of
c) To understand our own nature as
well as that of others.
d) To develop sensibility and compassion for
fellow human beings.
e) To arrive at certain criteria for
evaluating the subtleties of human behavior.
f) To achieve intellectual growth and the power to
tackle our troubles in a more effective way
Prose is the ordinary form of written language.It imitates the spoken language
Short Stories Personal Narrative
Fairy Tales Letters
Folk Tales Memoirs
Novels Short Stories
a language written with rhythm, figurative language, imagery, sound devices and
emotionally charged language.
Drama is a story written to be performed by actors. Although a drama is meant to be performed,
one can also read the script, or written version, and imagine the action.
1-What is Literature? Literature in a broad sense:
anything written, including writings that have a factual or informative nature
Literature in a specific sense: imaginative writings communicating life experiences, thoughts and feelings about life, such as stories,
poems and plays
What does genre mean?2-
3-What are the three main genres of literature? Prose Poetry Drama
The Elements of Poetry
There are some common characteristics,
however, that we can use to help us differentiate between poetry and prose.
(1) It should look like a poem, meaning that lines don’t run to the margins. Some lines are not even sentences.
(2) There are usually some musical devices (such as rhyme) that give the
poem a song-like, lyrical quality.
(3) Images are conveyed through sensory details and figurative
language. (4) The poem has some form to hold it together.
poem has some meaning, image or emotion it wants to share with the reader.
are words that have the exact same-sounding ending, like lay and day cat and hat,
Slant rhyme words sound similar, but aren’t exact, like one and down.
A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming
Look at the following poem and identify the
Form is the structure of the poem. Any type of writing must have something to
hold it together.
The structure can be
created through many means: meter, stanza, and rhyme
A stanza in poetry is like a paragraph in prose. The author divides the poem by
grouping words into
stanzas. We can often see the structure
of the poem by the author’s use of stanza
Pattern Some poems are written in a set form like
sonnets, haikus, pantoums,
These patterns sometimes require a regular
rhyme scheme or meter;
number of syllables or lines.
The sonnet is the requirement of every experienced
poet. You must write one!
It is fourteen lines of
rhymed iambic pentameter.
The first 12 lines pose
a problem, ask a question, or set up a situation.
The couplet at the end solves the problem,
answers the question or settles the situation
The 9 basic steps to reading a poem
Step 1: Read through the poem to get a sense
Step 2: Identify the sentences and independent
(circle the periods, exclamation points,
question marks, and semicolons)
. For some reason, people always forget that
poetry is made up of complete sentences.
Step 3: Note the rhyme scheme (look for a
Step 4: Read the poem out loud. Try to follow
If you do this you'll hear where the poet
plays with the rhythm. And you'll hear the rhyme scheme.
Step 5: Look up any
words you don't understand.
Step 6: Re-read the
poem out loud.
Step 7: Re-read the
Step 8 Figure out the
tone -- the emotion -- of the poem.
Step 9: Re-read the
What is counterpaneis the bed top.
The clues were the words a-bed, and pillows
tale is a story with no known
author. Folk tales are passed down from
one generation to
another by word of mouth
Examples of Folk
Tales Ali Baba and the Forty
A fable is a very brief story in prose or in verse
that teaches a moral or a practical lesson about how to succeed in life.
is : Short story
Teaches a lesson or a
Animals have human
Stresses a theme
of Fables The Crow and the Jar
The Wolf and the House
The Fox and the Crow
The Country Mouse and the City Mouse The Maid and the Milk pail
the main Characteristics of a
1. A fable is a piece of prose fiction which
can be read at a single sitting.
3. There is often little action, hardly any
Its plot is not very complex.
There is a limited set of characters, one single action and a simple plot
5 Main Elements
1.Plot – the series of events
2.Conflict – the struggle
3.Character – a person in a short story, novel, or play
- Time, place, and general conditions of a
Theme – The main idea
Plot refers to the series of events that give a fable its
meaning and effect. In most stories, these events arise out of conflict
experienced by the main character.
Parts of the Plot
complication, crisis, climax and denouement
Exposition 1. The conditions present at the beginning of
Inciting Incident The first evidence of conflict in the story.
Where the action starts
. Rising Action Sequence of events occurring between the
inciting incident and the climax Events in the rising action should relate to
Climax The highest point of interest or emotion in
2. The point where the
two opposing forces are strongest.
Falling Action Events leading to the end of the conflict.
The outcome of the conflict
Resolution/ Denouement 1. The end of the conflict
2. Events that end the story
ConflictA. What is it?
1. The struggle between two opposing forces
2. The problem in the story
1. External conflict
– involves an outside source
1. Man vs. man
2. Man vs. society
3. Man vs. nature
Internal conflict –goes on within the character
1. The main character
character that the reader becomes emotionally involved with.
The character who goes up against the protagonist in the man versus man
The time and location in which a story takes
place is called the setting.
a) place - geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place?
time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc)
weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny,
social conditions - What is the daily
life of the characters like?
mood or atmosphere - What feeling is
created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark
The main idea in the fable. It is not stated
directly but must be inferred.
Themes can be revealed by
a story’s title
key phrases and statements about big ideas
the ways the characters change and the
lessons they learn about life.
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